國家圖書館 期刊文獻資訊網

連結國家圖書館 連結期刊文獻資訊網

臺灣期刊論文索引

摘要

本篇出處 玄奘人文學報 3 民93.07 頁1-32
篇名 日本沒有實施過科舉嗎?
作者 高明士
中文摘要   科舉,在隋唐創建此制時,正式名稱應該叫做「貢舉」,宋以後才逐漸稱為科舉。一般人,甚至學界一般也都以為日本沒有實施科舉。其實就八世紀前半的令制與運作實例而言,日本的確存在科舉制度,正式名稱與唐朝一樣叫貢舉。貢與舉有別,貢人指地方政府向中央推薦參加考試的士人,含地方官學生與一般庶人;舉人指中央官學學生以及依據別敕詔舉的士人。這樣的用法,唐、日皆同。只是實際實施的結果,唐朝以進士科為盛,日本則以秀才科為盛。秀才科(即方略試或策試),到十世紀時差不多成為文章得業生應試科目,但流為形式化,弊病甚多,使考試選才、考試公正的目標盡失,違論其於政治上所起的作用。江戶時代以後,方略試已無所聞,以致被認為日本無實施科舉。
英文摘要   Keju(Civil Service Examination), When it was first instituted during the Sui-Tang Period (6[90bb]-10[90bb] Century. A. D.), was formally called Koukyo(gongju in Chinese pronunciation). It was not until the song dynasty that it was gradually called Keju. It is quite a common impression to the general public, even to some scholar, that keju has never existed in Japan. But if we examined the codes and statutes and its operation of the first half of the Eighth Century Japan, we found that in Japan the keju (Civil Service Examination) did happen and was call koukyo, just like that of Tang times. There was a distinction between gong and ju. Gongren were the scholar candidates(including local school students and common people) recommended by local government to the central government for examination. Juren were scholars who either studied at the Imperial Academy or summoned by Special Edit. These practices were working both in Tang China as well as in Japan. Only the difference lies in the rise of sinzi Group in Tang and shyusai Group in Japan as a result of the Examinations. The shyusai Group distinguished themselves in the category of the writing of Strategy and policies in the Examination. When around the Tenth Century, this category of Examination had become a necessity for all the aspirant scholars attending the Civi Service Examination and also degenerated into a formality. The defects and corruptions out of this practice destroyed the fairness of the whole Examination system, consequently it became useless politically. It has become obsolete after the Edo Era (the 17[90bb] Century) and thus contributed to the general impression that the keju never existed in Japan.