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摘要

本篇出處 中華心理衛生學刊 31:4 2018.12[民107.12] 頁349-376
篇名 外顯自尊與內隱自尊之落差與壓力的交互作用對憂鬱的預測效果
作者 王馥亭 ; 林怡彤 ; 王韋婷
中文摘要   研究目的:本研究以縱貫研究方式,探討控制憂鬱、外顯自尊、內隱自尊後,內外自尊落差及其方向性與壓力的交互作用對憂鬱的預測效果。研究方法:本研究於2016年3至5月期間,以120位大學在學生為研究樣本在時間點一以量表測量外顯自尊與憂鬱程度,以內隱連結測驗(Implicit Association Test, IAT)測量內隱自尊,於一個月後的時間點二測量其生活壓力及憂鬱程度。研究結果:本研究利用階層迴歸分析,在控制了時間點一的憂鬱、外顯自尊、壓力與自尊落差之後,除了壓力對時間點二的憂鬱具有顯著的預測效果之外,只有內隱與外顯自尊之落差和壓力的交互作用對時間點二的憂鬱有顯著的預測效果,但是內外自尊落差及其方向性與壓力的三者間交互作用,無法顯著地預測時間點二憂鬱。單純斜率檢定結果顯示,僅於內外自尊落差較大者,壓力對時間點二憂鬱具顯著預測力,亦即內外自尊落差愈大,且隨著壓力增加,才會增加其憂鬱。研究結論:本研究結果顯示內外自尊落差可能為憂鬱的脆弱因子,並呼應素質-壓力模式之觀點,亦即此脆弱因子在個體面對壓力時,才能顯現其對憂鬱的作用。
英文摘要   Purpose: This longitudinal study examined whether the discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem, the direction of the discrepancy, and their interactions with stress could predict depression. Methods: From March to May in 2016, one hundred and twenty undergraduates completed Time 1 questionnaires regarding explicit self-esteem and depression, and the Implicit Association Test (IAT), measuring implicit self-esteem. One month later (Time 2), participants completed questionnaires regarding life stress and depression. Results: Controlling for covariates, the only significant predictor was the interaction of stress and self-esteem discrepancy in predicting Time 2 depression. Simple slope tests indicated that stress significantly predicted Time 2 depression in people with greater implicit-explicit self-esteem discrepancy. Conclusions: The results implicated that a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem is a vulnerable factor for depression. In line with the Diathesis-Stress model, the self-esteem discrepancy predict depressive symptoms especially when individuals face stressful events.