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摘要

本篇出處 教育心理學報 50:3 2019.03[民108.03] 頁503-528
篇名 青少年優勢力量表之發展研究
作者 王玉珍 ; 李宜玫 ; 吳清麟
中文摘要   本研究旨在發展青少年優勢力量表。量表發展第一階段以438位中學生及73位國中教師為對象,以質性方法蒐集國中青少年優勢力相關內涵,所得結果為編製題目之基礎。第二階段進行專家效度檢核後,以170位國中生進行預試分析,建立正式量表。第三階段為正式量表信效度驗證,431位研究參與者中,男生218位(50.6%),女生213位(49.4%);年齡介於12至16歲,平均年齡14.31歲(SD=0.77)。所建立的正式量表包含9個構念,共47題。構念名稱分別為,內省負責、創意好奇、夢想企圖、活潑幽默、利他合群、幸福感恩、隨和友善、轉念釋懷以及樂觀希望。分數愈高表示該部分之優勢力愈明顯。各分量表Cronbach's α係數介於.80至.93,各因素相關在.39~.70之間。驗證性因素分析結果顯示,模式適配度頗佳,組合信度在.61到.91之間,平均變異抽取量除了樂觀希望分量表為.35外,其餘為.47到.71間,潛在因素相關為.42~.82,整體而言,具有不錯之建構效度與效標關聯效度。九個分量表中以創意好奇分量表最高,活潑幽默分量表最低,僅利他合群具性別差異。根據結果進行討論,並提出未來研究及實務應用建議。
英文摘要   The study was developed in three stages to establish a strengths scale for adolescents in Taiwan. In the first stage, the participants were 438 junior high students and 73 junior high teachers and data related to the strengths of junior high students were collected; we created questions about the scale based on the results. In the second stage, after expert validation was conducted, we conducted a pretest on 170 junior high students and established a formal scale. In the third stage, we verified the reliability and validity of the scale. The participants were 431 junior high students, (218 boys (50.6%) and 213 girls (49.4%) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 14.31, SD = 0.85). The strengths scale for adolescents in Taiwan contained 47 items and nine constructs, namely introspection and responsibility; creativity and curiosity; dream and ambition; activeness and humor; altruism and cooperativeness; happiness and gratitude; friendliness and amiability; reframing and relief; and optimism and hope. High scores indicate a high degree of strengths in a specific construct. The Cronbach's α of each subscale was between .80 and .93, and the factor loadings of each subscale were between .486 and .952. The correlativity of each factor was between .39 and .70. The result of a confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit; the component reliability was between .61 and .91. The average variance extracted of the subscale, optimism and hope, was .35, and that of the other subscales was between .47 and .71. The correlation between each latent factor ranged from .42 to .82. Overall, the results indicated good construct validity and criterion validity. The study reported that among the nine subscales, creativity and curiosity scored the highest, whereas activeness and humor scored the lowest. Gender differences were only noted in altruism and cooperativeness. Finally, the results and suggestions for application and future studies were discussed.